The Rise Of The Ottoman Empire
Rise Of The Turkish Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire was one of the strongest Empire in World during the 16th and 17th Centuries. The Ottoman State is literally founded by Osman Gazi (Othman) in 1299. The Empire lasted until the end of WW1.
Existence of Ottoman Empire ended by the foundation of Modern Turkey. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (former Ottoman officer) became the first president of Turkey. In 1923 Modern Turkish Republic is established at the heartland of Ottoman Empire: Anatolia.
How Did The Ottoman Empire Start? Who Founded?
The ancestors of the Ottomans, Seljuk Turks, ruled long years over the Middle East and Anatolia.
The first Seljuk State, Empire of Great Seljuk Turks, collapsed after the Crusades. Then Seljuk Sultanate Of Rum is established from the fraction of the Seljuk Empire.
Turks had named the West as Rum (Rome). Seljuk Sultanate Of “Rum” ruled over the Anatolia which was once Roman (or Byzantine) land.
When the Seljuk Sultanate Of Rum collapsed many little vassal-states emerged. One of those little princedoms owned by the Ottoman warlords.
Seljuk Sultanate Of Rum Map
Ottoman Empire Rise To Power History, Timeline
Notable Sultans of the early years of Ottoman Empire from 1299 to 1451.
Osman Ghazi (Son of Ertugrul Ghazi)
Osman Ghazi, the founder of the Ottoman Empire, had inherited a middle range Turkish princedom from his father Ertuğrul.
Osman expanded the territories to the westwards. The Ottoman State officially founded in 1299 by the Osman Ghazi. Osman is the name of the first Ottoman ruler. Ghazi means somebody who is wounded in battle. It’s an honorable title carried by heroic Turkish commanders.
The son of first Sultan: Orhan Ghazi married with a daughter of Byzantine Emperor. Therefore, he is given a strategically positioned citadel in Gallipoli peninsula as a dowry. This citadel, was the first soil of Ottoman Empire in European side. Ottomans used it as a headquarter of their operations. They swiftly spread around the Balkans.
Orhan’s most significant success was his capturing of Bursa city. Bursa was located at the southern bank of Marmara Sea and it was a very close neighbour to Constantinople, the capital of Byzantine Empire.
Rise Of The Ottoman Empire On A Map From Foundation
Sultan Murad I Rule
Sultan Murad I, considered as the first real statesman of Ottoman Empire. His predecessors had obtained some initial gainings but Murad I, achieved a leap in the history of Ottomans.
Murad I initially proved his administrative capabilities in the army. He rehashed the structure of the artillery and infantry. He created the Devşirme (Recruiting) system and Ottomans trained the recruited Christian boys from their boyhood to adulthood as tough soldiers. They converted to Islam and embraced the Turkish culture. Unbeatable Janissary infantry units are built like this. Ottoman land forces never lost a war up until the end of 17th century.
Artillery is also advanced by the Murad I. As a result of these military reforms, Murad conquered Edirne (Adrianople), a very important city of Byzantine Empire. He declared the city as the new capital of Ottoman Empire. It stayed as so until the conquest of Constantinople.
Sultan Murad II Rule
Sultan Murad II defetead a union of Christian armies which was gathered to expel the Ottomans from Europe. Murad II heavily defeated Crusaders in the Battle of Varna and put an end to the expectation of Christian rulers.
Murad II, worked hard to gain full control of Anatolia and Balkans. He wanted to live in seclusion for religious purposes. He abdicated of the throne in favour of his son, Mehmed II (Conqueror), a very well educated young prince.
Rise Of The Ottoman Empire 1451 to 1699
Notable Sultans of the peak of Ottoman Empire from 1451 to 1699.
Sultan Mehmed The Conqueror Rule
Sultan Mehmed II, is known as “Fatih” (The Conqueror) in Turkish history because of the conquest of Constantinople, one of the holiest cities of medieval world.
The prophet of Islam, Muhammad (SAV), predicted this conquest centuries ago and said these words: “One day, Constantinople will be conquered. How wonderful and blessed are the commander of its conquest and his soldiers!”
Mehmed proclaimed the Constantinople as the new capital and named it Konstantiniyye, a Turkish version of its previous name. Turks, began to use the “Istanbul” centuries after the fall of Constantinople.
Conquest of Constantinople was not the only success of Mehmed. He ensured the full authority of Anatolia by conquering the Empire of Trebizond and remaining vassal states of Seljuk Turks.
Mehmed The Conqueror also penetrated deep into the Balkans. In order to secure the Ottoman domination in Eastern Europe.
Ottoman Empire by the time of Sultan Mehmed The Conqueror
Sultan Selim I Rule (Selim The Grim)
Selim I, was a forceful and fastmoving commander. He doubled the boundaries of Ottoman Empire in only eight years. Unlike his ancestors, he intensified the conquests of the eastern lands. Therefore he seized huge grounds in the Iran, Syria, Palestine and Egypt.
He was after the conquest of holy lands. He achieved his dreams by conquering the Mecca, Medina, Jesuralem and Cairo. The Ottoman Empire then dominated all the known holy cities of the world, except for Rome.
Conquests of Selim I – Makka- Madina – Jerusalem – Alexandria
Sultan Suleiman The Magnificent Rule (1520-1566)
Sultan Suleiman is known as the greatest ruler of the Ottoman Empire. He expanded the borders to every possible direction and Ottoman Empire became a superpower in 16th century.
Suleiman personally instituted major legislative changes relating to society, education, taxation, and criminal law. His concept of “Justice” fixed the form of the empire for centuries after his death as a cornerstone of the Ottoman Law.
His skill as military strategist doubled the size of his Ottoman Empire. Suleiman commanded his armies personally in conquering the Christian strongholds of Belgrade, Hungary as well as Rhodes.
Suleiman The Magnificent went as far as the gates of Vienna in 1529. Turkish fleet dominated Mediterranean Sea provided Hayreddin Barbarossa as admiral of the fleet.
Greatest Extent Of Ottoman Empire Map
Sultanate Of Women
Most of the Sultans after the Sultan Suleiman, did not lead the army themselves. They were focused the pleasures of the palace instead of going to the battles. Able Grand Viziers handled the wheels of the government for long years as well as the queen mothers.
The women influence started with the Hürrem Sultan, or Roxelana, the wife of Sultan Suleiman. The Nurbanu Sultan, Safiye Sultan, Kösem Sultan became the powerful ladies of Ottoman Empire who dominated the Ottoman palace and policies for a certain period.
Ottoman Empire did not record any achievements in this period, yet did not lose any lands neither.
Map Of Ottoman Empire most powerful period
Sultan Murad IV
Murad IV, is the last conqueror of Ottoman Empire. He captured the Baghdad and Yerevan in 17th century. He is known for restoring the authority of the Ottoman Empire and starting the resurgence period after the Sultanate of Women.
- Social Structure Of Ottoman Empire
- Short History Of The Ottoman Empire
- Ottoman Empire Maps And Facts
Rise Of The Turkish Ottoman Empire Blog History Article By Serhat