Map Of Ottoman Empire With Facts
Ottomans was one of the mini-states founded in 1299 upon the downfall of Seljuk Turks. Although it had many rivals in Anatolian peninsula, this small city-state managed to gain power and expand swiftly thanks to its clever actions.
Let’s take a look at the Ottoman Empire facts with questions and answers, with the help of useful maps.
Who Founded The Ottoman Empire?
Osman Ghazi (Founder) inherited a large tribe from his father chieftain Ertuğrul. Osman was a smart strategist and warlike commander. He managed to expand the borders towards the North-West and seized the city of Nicaea (Turkish: İznik) from the Byzantine feudal lords.
This new-conquered city was famous for the Nicaea Council. The first Christian council that was gathered by the Emperor Constantine in 325 A.D. The city became the house of brilliant İznik Tiles and its workshops throughout the Ottoman Empire rule.
When Ottomans Started To Spread In Europe?
The son of Osman Gazi, Orhan Ghazi married a Byzantine princess and given a strategically significant castle in Gallipoli peninsula as a dowry. This castle was located on Dardanelles Strait. Chimpe Castle was the first land of the Ottoman Empire in Europe and it became the hub of Ottoman expansion into Balkans. Therefore Orhan Ghazi was the first ruler of Ottomans to step on to the European lands.
What Was The First Capital Of The Ottoman Empire?
Orhan captured a very important city, located on the southern bank of Marmara Sea, named Bursa. He immediately proclaimed this significant city as the new capital. Because conquering of Bursa (Prusa) was the greatest achievement of Ottomans until then.
Ottoman Empire From Foundation To Greatest Extent
Conversion Of The Ottoman Princedom Into A State
The Osman Ghazi founded the Ottomans for good, but Sultan Murad I, was the one who converted the Ottomans into a real State. This Sultan Murad established the core of unbeatable Ottoman army. He trained elite military troops called Janissaries, and made it the core power of Ottoman army. Sultan Murad also established the accomplished artillery unit of Ottomans.
Sultan Murad conquered a major Byzantine stronghold, Edirne (Adrianople) and proclaimed it the new capital of Ottoman State instead of Bursa.
Sultan Murad also defetead the first union of Christendom against Ottoman occupation in the Europe. The attacks of united Christian armies against Ottoman expansion lasted long years until the time of Murad II, the father of Mehmed II “The Conqueror”.
Murad II routed a large Christian union in the Battle of Varna and then broke their hope to scratch out Ottomans from European territories.
Conversion Of The Ottoman State Into An Empire
Osman Ghazi founded, Murad I improved the state and then Sultan Mehmed II “The Conqueror” transformed it into an Empire.
Mehmed II had inherited a powerful state from his father, Murad II. He immediately rehased the Ottoman army and made it stronger. He produced the most advanced cannons of the era; Şahi (Shahi) and used it in the siege of Constantinople.
Conquest Of Constaniople And The New Capital Istanbul
Capturing of Constantinople in 1453 was just the beginning of Mehmed’s achievements. The capital was changed for the third and last time and became Constantinople. (Istanbul)
Mehmed expanded the borders to the east and west. Then gained control of remaining vassal states of Seljuk Turks and created a Turkish union in the Anatolia. He defeated the Empire of Trebizond afterwards and gained full control of the southern bank of Black Sea.
Mehmed expanded the borders deep into the Balkans. Ottomans became neighbors with the Hungarian Empire. Mehmed’s alliances with the Venetians and Genoese of Italy, gave him opportunity to trade with entire Europe.
Mehmed, transported the goods of Silk Road through Mediterranean Sea with the help of these Italian sailors. Ottomans made great deal of money from dominating the trade routes They acted as a bridge between the east and west.
The Ottoman Empire Map By The Conquest Of Constantinople 1453
Greatest Ruler or Sultan Of The Ottoman Empire?
After the three significant rulers I counted so far (Osman Ghazi, Murad I, Mehmed II), Suleiman I was the superstar of Turkish history. He converted the Ottoman Empire into a superpower.
Suleiman the Magnificent had all the personality traits that made people legendary. He was not only a competent commander, he also mastered the art of jewelry making.
He spent his life to build the global empire that was the dream of Mehmed The Conqueror and he made his name all around the world with golden letters. He was known in the East as Sultan Suleiman the Law Giver (Kanuni Sultan Suleyman) and in the West as Suleiman the Magnificent.
Ottoman Empire Greatest Achievements From 1451 To 1566
Suleiman personally instituted major legislative changes relating to society, education, taxation, and criminal law. His ground-breaking Codex-Suleiman, synthesized Turkish traditions, Islamic law and secular law. That is how he acquired the title of Kanuni “Lawgiver” in Turkish History.
Suleiman was married a famous lady of history, Roxelana (Hurrem Sultan). She was known as the most powerful lady in the history of the Ottoman Empire. She had a strong influence on the Sultan Suleiman.
Ottoman Empire Map At Its Height Under Suleiman The Magnificent
Greatest Extent Of The Empire
Eventualy, Sultan Suleiman left a prosperous Empire with massive boundaries to his successors. Altough his son Selim II, is not counted as a notable ruler the growing of the empire carried on.
Sultan Suleiman’s Grand Vizier Sokullu Mehmed Pasha handled the wheels of the goverment in favour of new Sultan. Therefore the expansion of the Ottoman Empire did not stop until the end of the 17th century.
Ottoman Empire Map Largest Borders
Sultanate Of Women
There are a few notable Sultans after Suleiman, during the rise of the Ottomans. Able administrators and strong ladies handled the government for long years. Sultanate Of Women is the name of a period that the palace completely dominated by ladies. Young Sultans came to throne and their mothers ruled instead.
When Is The Peak Of Ottoman Empire?
The maps below, describes perfectly the expansion of the boundaries of Ottoman Empire from Osman Ghazi to the Suleiman The Magnificent. Continuous extention of the Ottoman Empire lasted from 1299 to 1699 for around 400 years.
Rise Of The Ottoman Empire Map Timeline From 1359 To 1683
When And Why The Ottoman Empire Collapsed?
Social and cultural advancements like Renaissance and Reform in Europe did not resonate with Ottomans; as a result of which, Ottomans were left behind in terms of art, culture and military. The technological advance of Europe led Ottomans to sacrifice more men in order to protect their lands.
During the declining years of the empire, Selim III, Mahmud II and Abdülmecid tried to institute modernization but their effort could not save the empire from the eventual collapse.
Ottomans began to lose land in 1699 with the Treaty Of Karlowitz. The beginning of the long and steady decline. It lasted from 1699 to 1918. The Ottoman Empire is occupied by allies following the WWI.
Decline Of The Ottoman Empire from 1800 to 1914
When And How Modern Turkey Is Founded?
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, managed to save the heartland of Ottoman territories (Anatolia) from the allies. He organized the War of Independence (1918-1922) by gathering former soldiers of the Ottoman Empire. Aftwewards, by making fundamental reforms, he pioneered the foundation of the Modern Day Turkey (1923) as a new state.
Turkey was born from the heartland of Ottoman Empire Asia Minor (Anatolia)
By Serhat Engül